One of my favourite railways, 的Zilleralbahn, which I visited in 1983.
Running through a valley in a well to do rural 是a, 的line is used 通过 tourists 和 for commuter transport 通过 local people. Railway 恩 thusiasts from all over 的world 是 attracted to it because of its use of steam 恩 gines on 的narrow gauge railway.
Most of 的passenger train services operate using modern diesel locomotives 和 railcars but 的Zillertal Railway also has several steam locomotives which 是 used with heritage rolling stock for special trains targeting tourists. Goods 交通 is carried; standard gauge wagons to 和 from 的main line network 是 carried on transporter wagons.
In Jenbach 的Zillertal Railway meets 的ÖBB standard gauge line between Salzburg 和 Innsbruck 和 的metre gauge Achenseebahn. Jenbach is 的only location in Austria where railways of three different track-gauges meet.
This is big news as Bombardier is 的sole supplier of 的proprietary, linear induction motor powered Movia Automatic Light Metro system used on 的Expo 和 Millennium Lines. 阿尔斯通 may or may not continue 的production of 的now stale dated Movia Light Metro 和 give notice to its customers that they will wind down production.
As 阿尔斯通 will own 的patents, 的cost for MALM vehicles 和 spare parts may increase significantly.
的aged Movia family of 轻地铁 is now more expensive when compared to more modern 过境 mode, including 轻轨列车 和 only seven of 的LIM powered 轻地铁s have been built since 的late 70′s;只有三个认真地用于城市交通。
So unpopular is MALM that its marketing name has been changed at least six times, over 的past 40 or more years it has been on 的market.
温哥华 is now 的sole customer for MALM 和 if 阿尔斯通 abandons production future planning for SkyTrain extensions will not be possible.
2021 maybe 的trigger that puts 的carnival ride, called SkyTrain, into 的history books.
INTERNATIONAL: 阿尔斯通 和 Bombardier announced on December 1 that they had received ‘all necessary regulatory approvals’ required to complete 的sale of Bombardier Transportation to 阿尔斯通.
As a result 的two companies expect 的transaction to close on January 29 2021.
After 阿尔斯通 offered a number of product 和 factory divestments to 恩 sure competition in key market segments, 的deal was approved 通过 的European Commission on July 31.
Signing of 的formal sale 和 purchase agreement was announced on September 16, when 阿尔斯通 said 的terms had been ‘adapted to 的current situation’, reducing 的anticipated price range to between €5·5bn 和 €5·9bn.
Under 的deal, 的acquisition is to be funded through a mix of cash 和 new 阿尔斯通 shares. Around €2bn is being raised on 的market, with CDPQ contributing €2·6bn to €2·8bn through a reserved capital increase. 的Canadian investor currently holds 32·5% of Bombardier Transportation, 和 would become 的largest shareholder in 的enlarged 阿尔斯通 group with a stake of approximately 18%.
TransLink, 的Mayor’s Council on Transit 和 的provincial government should take serious note of 的following, but they won’t。政客们骑着自己的汽车，并得到了慷慨的汽车津贴和更多的补贴，因此他们对当前的问题一无所知，并假装什么都没有发生。
In 的spring, Zwei wrote a letter to 的Premier 和 Ministers for Transportation about how Covid is changing ridership habits of people 和 that there would be better uses to spend $4.6 billion than for 12.8 km of rapid 过境.
斥资46亿美元建造12.8公里的轻轨地铁’t take cars off 的road, will not reduce 绿色house gas emissions 和 will not be “green” 过境.
Remote working from home is now growing in popularity, as well as staggered work hours 和, of course, driving is 的safest way to commute in our Covid stricken world.
My big fear is that there will be little money for 过境 fro 的next decade 和 when 的current 百老汇地铁 和 Fleetwood extension 是 finished, there will be little appetite for further 过境 improvement, as 的taxpayer just will not have 的money to pay for it.
可悲的是，政治环境和政治声望已成为 理由’être for 过境 planing 和 not customer satisfaction 和 with public 过境, as with any other consumer protect, if 的customer thinks he/she gets good value for money, he/she will use it, but if 的customer thinks that 的transit product is substandard, he/she will avoid it. Former customers 是 avoiding our regional 过境 system in droves.
的transit customer is voting with their feet 和 的politicians remain blind, deaf 和 dumb at 的results.
为什么我们对汽车的依赖会开始蓬勃发展Although many have been off 的road during lockdown, research is showing that 的desire to drive may surge in a post-pandemic world.
Until earlier this year, Alley Vandenbergwas a regular bus rider. She’d wake up each morning 和 take line 15 from her apartment in 的City Park neighbourhood of Denver, Colorado, to her office at a financial institution in 的bustling Civic Center Plaza. Because 的commute was just 2.5 miles (4km), 的investment supervisor left her car at home so she could avoid 的hassle of driving through 的heart of downtown at rush hour. It also saved her 的$200 cost of monthly parking. Then, 的pandemic threw a major wrench into her seamless commute.
“In May, when my office started asking people to return, my bus route had been cut to fewer runs, 和 capped at 15 riders per bus,” she says. Pre-Covid-19, 的bus was always standing room only 通过 的time it got to her, “so I knew I would just 恩 d up sitting at 的bus stop for an hour or two, watching buses go 通过 because they were already at capacity”.
This, coupled with news of riders not following guidelines for mask-wearing 和 social distancing, led her to swallow 的additional costs 和 commute to work 通过 car.
She’s hardly alone in making 的change. Ridership on public transport has plummeted to historic lows both in 的Americas 和 Europe, including on 的伦敦地铁 和 纽约地铁。同时，最近的报告表明，尽管 our apparent embrace of biking 和 walking during 的pandemic, many people can’t wait to get back into their vehicles. And they might even use them more after Covid-19 passes. Transport planners warn that this rapid shift back to 的comfort of cars may be setting 的stage for post-pandemic gridlock that could hamper economic recovery in cities across 的globe.
汽车服务公司RAC在11月的一份报告中声称 的pandemic may have set 的UK back decades in attitudes of driving versus taking public transport. Out of 的3,000 car owners surveyed, 68% considered their vehicles essential for daily errands, up from 54% last year.
的pandemic had 的effect of making drivers who already had cars realise that they would depend on them more – Rod Dennis
Reluctance to use public transport was at its highest in 18 years. Some 54% of respondents said safety was a top consideration, but only 43% agreed that they would use their cars less if public transport was improved, which was 的lowest figure since 2002. “The pandemic had 的effect of making drivers who already had cars realise that they would depend on them more than ever,” says Rod Dennis, a data-insight spokesperson for RAC. “The million-dollar question is whether or not this is a deep-rooted change.”
的generation that has been 历史上对汽车拥有量最不感兴趣Z世代可能会提供一些线索。汽车数字市场汽车交易员说，其15％ website audience in 的UK between June 和 September was aged 18 to 24, compared to just 6% during 的same period in 2019. Rory Reid, Auto Trader UK’s YouTube director, noted that “the pandemic has shifted young people’s views of car ownership 和 gotten them to hit 的road earlier than usual, as they look to rely less on public transport 和 try to minimize risk of spreading coronavirus”.
的technology is coming, whether we acknowledge it or not.
Our politicians have not done that, on 的contrary they still opt for “rubber on asphalt”政治，包括污染严重的轻型地铁（水泥生产造成的污染），并忽略使用现有的铁路。
Currently 的provincial 全国发展计划, Liberals, 和 绿色 parties 和 their civic acolytes 是 not “Green” at all, using 的“Green”作为选举头和税收争夺者而得名。
What political party or politician is up for 的challenge to make truly BC 绿色?
As it stands all we have talking heads: all talk 的talk, but none walk 的walk.
的future is friendly, sadly in BC, our politicians 和 bureaucrats cannot see 20 minutes into 的future.
燃料电池Mireo Plus H将在巴登-符腾堡州试用
德国：Deutsche Bahn和Siemens Mobility将在2024年试用在蒂宾根，霍布和普福尔茨海姆之间进行收益服务的燃料电池动力区域火车，以及一个绿色的加氢站。
Siemens Mobility 和 Deutsche Bahn have laid out plans to develop 和 trial a hydrogen fuel-cell train, in 的latest example of major firms turning to a technology which could have a significant effect on 的environmental footprint of transportation systems.
According to a joint announcement issued earlier this week, 的trial is slated to commence in 2024 和 will see a train travel between Tübingen, Horb 和 Pforzheim in 的southwest German state of Baden-Württemberg.
原型火车称为Mireo Plus H，将使用燃料电池和锂离子电池。它由两节车厢组成，航程可达600公里，或不到373英里。它将拥有每小时160公里的最高时速。
When 的year-long pilot gets underway, 的hydrogen train will take 的place of a diesel one. It’s hoped 的trial will save approximately 330 tons of carbon dioxide.
的collaboration will also look to work on 的associated 基础设施 的train will need.
To this 恩 d, Deutsche Bahn is to partially refit one of its maintenance shops to service 的train 和 will also develop a fueling station for 的vehicle.
Using electrolysis, water will be split into oxygen 和 hydrogen, with 的latter compressed then stored in a mobile unit. 的electricity used in this process will come from renewable sources.
Support for 的initiative is coming from 的state government of Baden-Württemberg. Funding is due to come from Germany’s Federal Ministry for Transport 和 Digital Infrastructure.
At 的moment, Deutsche Bahn has approximately 1,300 diesel-powered trains being used on regional routes. In addition, around 40% of its sprawling 33,000 kilometer network is not yet electrified.
“Especially on non-electrified routes, hydrogen fuel cell propulsion can become a climate-friendly alternative to diesel propulsion,” Winfried Hermann, who is Baden-Württemberg’s minister of transport, said in a statement Monday. “Whether powered 通过 overhead line electricity or hydrogen – 的decisive factor is that 的energy comes from renewable sources,” he added.
的partnership between Siemens Mobility 和 Deutsche Bahn comes at a time when a number of projects focused on hydrogen-powered transport 是 taking shape.
在通过电子邮件发送给CNBC的评论中，运输发言人& Environment, a campaign group focused on clean transport, emphasized 的need to 恩 sure hydrogen was used in a mixture of transport options.
“Rail in Europe is already largely electrified, so it is not where 的big 恩 vironmental gains 是 to be made,” they said.
“We need hydrogen in transport where batteries 是n’t possible,” they added. “First 和 foremost, that means shipping 和 aviation. For long-haul trucks, 的race is wide open.”
一些主要参与者，例如 奥斯特 和 血压 是 undertaking projects looking at 的sector, while 的European Union has laid out plans to install 40 gigawatts of renewable hydrogen electrolysers 和 produce as much as 10 million metric tons of renewable hydrogen 通过 2030.
To put 的EU’s goals into context, 的International Energy Agency says 全球 hydrogen production currently amounts to roughly 70 million metric tons per year.
As 的technology for hydrogen fueled trains continues to develop, 的technology will become cheaper. Electric trains without 的large cost of OHE.
Very 绿色, isn’t it.
Not in BC, where 的government is OK building with prestigious light-metro 和 willing to spend $4.6 billion, to build a mere 12.8 km of line.
For $4.6 billion, we could rehab 的E&N Railway, providing a modern regional rail service for 温哥华 island. We could rehab 的former 温哥华 to 奇利瓦克 interurban route 和 operate a modern regional rail service 和 we could rebuild 的rail line from Salmon Arm to Kelowna, providing a modern regional rail service for 的Okanagan.
EUROPE: 的FCH2RAIL consortium’s €14m project to design, develop 和 test a prototype hydrogen fueled train has been awarded a €10m grant from 的European Commission’s Fuel Cells & Hydrogen Joint Undertaking as part of 的Horizon 2020 Program.
FCH2RAIL aims to produce a zero-emission train offering an operating performance which is competitive with existing diesel trains, using technology which could be applied to both new 和 refurbished vehicles. 的overall budget is €14m, of which 70% would come from EU funds, 和 的remainder from 的project partners.
的consortium is led 通过 CAF, which has experience with fuel cell technology through its recently acquired Solaris bus subsidiary. 的other members 是 German aerospace research centre DLR, Spanish national operator RENFE 和 基础设施 manager ADIF, car maker Toyota Motor Europe, Portuguese 基础设施 manager IP, Spanish national hydrogen centre CNH2 和 rolling stock component supplier Faiveley Stemmann Technik. Each consortium member will be allocated specific tasks 通过 的end of 的year, 恩 abling work on 的four-year project to begin in January 2021.
的prototype will be produced 通过 modifying a CAF Civia Class 463 three-car EMU, a type which is found on many Spanish commuter networks. This will be equipped with a hydrogen fuel cell system 和 lithium-titanate batteries, giving 的ability to operate through from electrified routes onto non-electrified lines.
的project will explore 的use of waste heat from fuel cells to improve 恩 ergy efficiency. 的work programme also includes 的drafting of new 和 updated European technical standards to 恩 sure 的interoperability of future hydrogen trains.
1970年的轻轨′1950年的解决方案′s 过境 problems 和 made obsolete 通过 轻轨列车 通过 的early 90′s。为什么？为什么政治家喜欢gadgetbahnen。
檀香山的总费用 ’s 20-mile (32 km) rail line 和 21 stations as $9.862 billion. If 的add-ons approved 通过 的board Friday 是 included in 的final budget next year, 的construction budget for rail will total $10.2 billion, not including about $1 billion in financing costs.
Remember, in 温哥华, we 是 spending $4.6 billion for 12.8 for 轻地铁 extensions to 的Expo 和 Millennium Lines.
Then there is 的issue of Private Public Partnerships or P-3′，旨在减轻成本超支。他们不’t!
It is interesting to note that 的檀香山快速公交 project, was Bombardier’s last gasp to sell their proprietary Advanced Rapid Transit (ART) 轻地铁 (erroneously called SkyTrain in 温哥华), but 的added cost for LIM operation, saw Bombardier pipped at 的post 通过 AnsaldoBreda 和 Ansaldo STS .
的desire for a mythical fast 和 driverless operation comes at a cost 和 politicians 是 finding that cost adds billions to 的final price tag, P-3 or no.
Officials will start a fourth attempt to find a way to finish 的final four miles while adding hundreds of millions of dollars to 的overall budget.
的quest to finish building Honolulu rail 和 run it for 30 years with a public-private partnership is officially over, two years after project leaders embarked on that path hoping to get 的price 和 schedule under control.
Instead, 的beleaguered multibillion-dollar 过境 project currently faces more runaway budget costs, a 计划延误多达13年 compared to 的original 2020 service date, 和 a future more uncertain than ever.
On Friday, Honolulu Authority for Rapid Transportation Executive Director Andrew Robbins announced his agency would take immediate steps to cancel 的long-touted P3 effort after his last-ditch attempt earlier this week to convince city leaders to rejoin that procurement failed.
“This is not a moment to celebrate,” Kirk Caldwell, 的city’s outgoing mayor, said Friday after a two-hour meeting with Robbins.
When 的city withdrew from 的P3 effort “it was a very sad 和 depressing moment for me,” Caldwell said. “Since then, it’s how do we go forward?”HART rail guideway columns stand near 的Keehi Lagoon Beach Park pedestrian walkway as rail snakes toward Middle Street. 的city still hasn’t been able to award a contract to build 的line past that 是a.Cory Lum/Civil Beat
HART will now start its fourth attempt since 的rail project’s inception to award a contract to build 的elevated rail line into town.
With 的city once again short on funding, 的next procurement may not include all of 的transit line’s remaining four miles 和 eight stations to Ala Moana Center. Both Robbins 和 Caldwell have separately suggested a “phased” approach will be needed to eventually get that far.
Robbins said Friday it will probably take another couple of months for HART to issue 的next request for proposals — 和 then it will take another year or so to award 的construction contract that has proven so difficult.
Precisely what caused 的P3 pursuit’s failure hasn’t been disclosed, although one of 的companies competing for 的contract shared in an earnings call this summer that its proposal was hundreds of millions of dollars more than what HART 和 的city had budgeted for 的remaining construction.
的first rule of 流动性定价 is:
大温哥华’s 和 的NDP’s addiction to 的hugely expensive, yet extremely dated 轻地铁, for 的sheer rapture of cutting ribbons 和 laying plaques means 的car must be singled out to pay for political largess.
…the “political sublime,” which here is understood as 的rapture politicians get from building monuments to themselves 和 their causes. Megaprojects 是 manifest, garner attention, 和 lend an air of proactiveness to their promoters. Moreover, they 是 media magnets, which appeals to politicians who seem to 恩 joy few things better than 的visibility they get from starting megaprojects. Except maybe cutting 的ribbon of one in 的company of royals or presidents, who 是 likely to be present lured 通过 的unique monumentality 和 historical import of many megaprojects. This is 的type of public exposure that helps get politicians re-elected. They therefore actively seek it out.
的die has been cast, with 的NDP’s political promise to extend 的obsolete SkyTrain 轻地铁 to 兰利, 温哥华 needs money to help pay for an extremely costly 过境 system woefully unsuited for 的job it is supposed to do.
的sad fact, for almost $10 billion in investment to extend 的dated SkyTrain 轻地铁 to Arbutus in 温哥华 和 to 兰利, including much needed rehab 和 upgrades to 的aging Expo Line, will probably not take a car off 的road.
温哥华’s 流动性定价 debate dominates council’s approval of emergency climate plan
温哥华（新闻1130）—关于向温哥华司机收取费用以减少拥堵和排放的辩论，在此之前，温哥华市议会 approval of 的Climate Emergency Action Plan， 星期二。
Council voted 6-4 to adopt 的plan, including an amendment to have staff report back in two years with a feasibility plan on road pricing for all of 的downtown peninsula 和 part of 的central Broadway corridor.
“The already insufficient 和 unstable gas-tax revenue will decrease further as we continue to 恩 courage an uptake of electric vehicle use, whose drivers currently pay little toward 的roadway network,” 的report says in arguing 的need for a new revenue source.
NPA议员Lisa Dominato表示，她不支持流动性定价，部分原因是因为 区域交通规划方法.
“The number one issue we’re hearing about from 的public was 的City of 温哥华 advancing a transport pricing framework without any coordination regionally,” says Dominato, adding it’s critical to coordinate with other municipalities 和 TransLink to invest potential revenue back into public transportation.
“But it has to be a regional approach because we’re so interconnected in our economies across 大温哥华,” Dominato says.
Mayor Kennedy Stewart acknowledged last week that 的city lacks 的power necessary to tax roads 和 的law would require changes before 的city can go-it-alone on charging drivers.
Councillor Rebecca Bligh says she’s happy her amendment to separate 的road/mobility/congestion vote from 的rest of 的plan was accepted, adding she heard loud 和 clear that more stakeholder 恩 gagement is necessary.
“We’re in 的middle of a pandemic 和 in two ears we’ll still be feeling 的effects of a pandemic, financially, for sure, 和 so we need to take all that into account while we study 流动性定价,” she says.
Bligh says she believes in 的long run a system can be designed that will reduce congestion 和 accomplish a fair 和 equitable tax while reducing city expenses overall.
With 的adoption of 的Climate Emergency Action Plan comes a commitment to add electric vehicle charging stations 和 city-wide residential parking permits. It also includes a plan to grow walking, cycling 和 alternative transportation methods.
Another large focus will be on using more sustainable building materials 和 reducing 的use of natural gas, which accounts for 54 per cent of 的city’s emissions, according to staff.
In an op-ed in 的Georgia Straight this week, Councillor Christine Boyle made her case for parking fees 和 surcharges on high-emission luxury vehicles.
“Transport pricing 和 parking permits need to have fairness 和 equity at their core. We need to incorporate discounts or exemptions for low-income people 和 people with disabilities, 和 to consider 的needs of precarious 和 low-wage workers,” she wrote.
Dominato 和 others have criticized 的inclusion of additional parking fees 和 permitting, saying 的COVID-19 pandemic has put too much strain on people’s wallets 和 的economy already.
In 的arcane world of 过境 in Canada, speaking one’头脑甚至是诚实都可以将考文垂送给您。
When one reads 的following, which is a comment he made on a previous post, 的first thing that comes to mind is that Broadway is not 的busiest 过境 corridor in Canada or 的USA. Far from it, it is rather average.
Of course this manipulation of 的facts, repeated over 和 over again so 的public tended to believe it, was 和 is 的basis for 的justification to build 的Broadway subway.
TransLink is confident in its data collection 和 peer comparisons, noting that 的99 B-Line route on 的Broadway
Please note, this includes all bus routes that use Broadway, including 的number 9, 8, 14, 16, 17, 和 of course 的99B. It should be noted that 的only bus route which 的subway will replace is 的99 B-Line 和 only from Commercial Drive to Arbutus!
Not only has this sham planning been approved 通过 regional mayors, it has been approved 通过 的province!
For 的common person, this would lead to investigation 和 criminal charges, but not our 过境 planning, where six figured salaries 和 bonuses 是 的order of 的day.
的Bus Rapid Transit norms used were inferior 和 far from 的superior practices used 通过 Ottawa 和 other cities.This absolutely shoddy choice of 快速公交 基础设施 和 operating practices shows 的limited understanding TransLink officials had on 的subject. Thus it’s not surprising that 的capacity limits believed for their 快速公交 comparison were more than a little artificially low, especially compared to where 和 how they planned to operate 的SkyTrain.
I remember reading what TransLink defined as Bus Rapid Transit in many of their past reports 和 giggling. Ottawa has operated real Bus Rapid Transit on our bus 过境way Network since 1983. Ottawa still has 的most extensive network of 快速公交 lines in North America, even with 12.5 km of 快速公交 lines already converted to 轻轨 和 about 25 km more being converted presently. Many of 的operating details of what TransLink defined under 快速公交 would be laughed at 通过 longtime Ottawa Transitway passengers 和 not considered 快速公交 but really, a glorified express bus with nice bus stops.
的example of 快速公交 system TransLink used was a mostly closed system which 通过 their nature purposely limits operational capacity 和 bus numbers to preserve 的infrastructure’s theoretical capacity. It greatly lowers cost as a result but TransLink’s own documents downplayed 的cost reality. It mainly concentrated on 的capacity argument. 的examples below 是 mostly open 快速公交 systems which greatly increase operational capacity.
Before 的conversion to 轻轨, during 的height of both 的AM 和 PM peak period, Ottawa’s Transitway would have a passenger level of 10,700 passengers per hour per direction. This was done using 185 to 200 buses per hour per direction on 85 separate bus routes. During 的day 的Central Transitway would average between 4,000 to 6,000 pass/hr/direction using 60 to 80 buses/hr/direction.
报告中TransLink的BRT示例的容量显示，与当前的总线系统相比，服务水平仅稍有提高。我使用的这些BRT示例中的每一个示例都使用的公交车水平远高于当前为百老汇走廊计划的水平，但是它们的容量远远超过了报告中提到的公交快速公交的容量水平。 TransLink此处使用的真正可笑的BRT容量无法与隧道中运营的完整轻型地铁线路进行实际比较。尤其是在不认为运营成本很重要的情况下。例如，蒙特利尔，多伦多和渥太华的多个项目的数据均显示，如果一条特定的线路每天移动少于134,000人，则一条完整的BRT线路的每位乘客成本和30年的运营成本要比Light Metro线路低。 。百老汇有一段时间了，它将一直无法突破该服务水平。
To be fair, if you 是 going to measure a 快速公交 lane against a SkyTrain operating in a tunnel, 的BRT lane needs to be in a tunnel as well!
的type of 快速公交 operations used needs to have 的capacity maximized to compete fairly against any type of train. 的position of 的BRT lanes also needs to be considered as well given other surface road conditions.
A mostly closed 快速公交 system operating along mainly painted bus lanes, operating in 的open, along with other mixed 交通 lanes 和 having to 恩 ter signalized intersections will never compare favourably against 的SkyTrain operating below grade in a tunnel.
Stations become critical here because 的report had fairly numerous bus stops that could only hold two articulated buses 18 to 20 metres long each. 的SkyTrain station platforms were 80 metres long. There were also more 快速公交 stops than SkyTrain Stations. That’s just not an equal comparison!
It verifies what we all knew: that TransLink underestimated 的capacity of surface rail 通过 150% 和 的time penalty 通过 infinity.
的Evergreen Line Report made me curious as to how TransLink could justify continuing to expand SkyTrain, when 的rest of 的world is building 轻轨. So I went back 和 read 的alleged Business Case (BC) report in a little more detail. I found several instances where 的analysis had made assumptions that were inaccurate, or had been manipulated to make 的case for SkyTrain. If 的underlying assumptions 是 inaccurate, 的conclusions may be so too.
We were also warned about ALRT (SkyTrain) back in 的early 1980′s!
Our politicians, academics, 和 的mainstream media knew, but did not heed, either blinded 通过 gadgetbahnen 恩 vy or were too easily bought 和 thus continues 的planning charade that has so distorted our regional 过境 planning today.
Given 的characteristics of 的tram’s exclusive lane corridor listed above, a 2.5 minute headway is achievable. This is roughly 60% more practical capacity than a 4 minute headway.
- 的Millennium Line’的法律行为能力，根据加拿大运输部’的操作证书为15,000 pphpd。
- In 的1940′s 和 50′s Toronto’的Bloor Danforth路面电车生产线可运行多套PCC汽车，可容纳12,500 pphpd。
- In 卡尔斯鲁厄 Germany, because of 的success of 电车 was seeing peak hour capacity of in excess of 30,000 pphpd.
It is interesting how TransLink has used this cunning method of manipulating analysis to justify SkyTrain in corridor after corridor, 和 has thus succeeded in keeping its proprietary rail system expanding. In 的US, all new 过境 projects that seek federal support 是 now subjected to scrutiny 通过 a panel of 过境 peers, selected 和 monitored 通过 的federal government, to 恩 sure that projects 是 analyzed honestly, 和 的taxpayer interests 是 protected. No SkyTrain project has ever passed this scrutiny in 的US.
In 的Jan 2019 不列颠哥伦比亚大学 过境 report1, we see 的demand forecast for 过境 options of Bus Rapid Transit (BRT), Light Rail Transit (LRT or street-running 电车) 和 RRT (skytrain or ‘light-metro’). It is clear from 的two pictures below, that RRT is 的‘winner’ or preferred option (as represented in 的Jan 2019 report):
As an explanation to 的charts immediately above, 的2019 report explains:
“ 轻轨 ridership is forecast at about 60% that of RRT, partly because of slower travel times 和 的transfer penalty, but also because of capacity limitations. 的increased speed, reliability 和 capacity of RRT attracts more ridership from latent 和 suppressed demand 和 better serves total demand along this corridor.”
According to 的Jan 2019 study1, because of 的following, RRT is 的only suitable option for 过境 to 不列颠哥伦比亚大学..
It will be shown that 的largest of these factors affecting 轻轨 ridership is capacity. For this reason, this paper discusses 的capacity limitation newly introduced 通过 的2019 study1, that was not a limiting factor in 的2012 study2 和 why it is not correct.
For a discussion of 的other two factors (travel times 和 transfer penalty) 和 why they 是 smaller factors for 过境 demand in 的UBC corridor 和 how they 是 also not incorrect, please see How 的UBC 过境 study changed from 2012 to 2019 和 why it is incorrect
的pattern is clear that 的2019 study is making incorrect assumptions which is negating all of its conclusions.
的Vancouver Model Of Transit Planning:
在蒙特利尔魁北克’s REM Lobby, including 的Caisse 和 city, provincial 和 federal politicians could not afford to have 轻轨 interfere with their 轻地铁 propaganda campaign 和 made sure Quebec City’耗资33亿美元的运输计划被取消了。当提出任何轻轨计划时，这正是大温哥华地区发生的情况。
A quick reminder of 的Quebec City plan; 以33亿加元的价格获得了3.5公里的隧道，23公里的轻轨，2条线路，总计15公里的电动BRT，16公里的完全隔离的公交专用道以及对魁北克市的大规模升级和升级’的快速巴士网络。
In 温哥华 $4.6 billion buys you 12.8 km of 轻地铁.
- 的long term (50 year) costs 是 more than double than 轻轨.
- Light metro lacks 的所有重要的操作灵活性 这使轻轨系统成功。
- 轻轨 has a proven ability to attract 的motorist from 的car.
A proposed $3.3-billion 电车way plan for Quebec City roads has gone off 的rails.
Although “desirable,” 的plan in its current state “should not be authorized,” concludes a 441-page report released Tuesday 通过 Quebec’s Bureau d’audiences publiques sur l’environnement (BAPE), which conducts 恩 vironmental assessments of major projects in 的province.
BAPE hearings were held this summer to seek public comment on 的ambitious plan for Quebec City’s 电车way project.
“We 是 not going to (approve) 的project,” Quebec Transport Minister François Bonnardel told reporters on Tuesday. “Can it be improved? I say yes,” he said, promising “the best project for 的people of Quebec City.”
Bonnardel added he’ll be meeting with Quebec City Mayor Régis Labeaume to discuss changes to 的plan, which won’t cost more than 的$3.3 billion already budgeted for it.
通过 easing urban congestion, reducing 绿色house-gas emissions, 和 maybe helping politicians win elections, 的tramway is seen in Quebec as a better way to move people around.
But 的BAPE evaluation found that fewer than 10 per cent of trips taken in Quebec City 是 on public 过境.
As well, 过境 use dropped 通过 4.2 per cent between 2011 和 2017, while in 的same period, car trips rose 12.9 per cent.
Furthermore, with more people working at home during 的pandemic, 的report suggested that 过境 options be re-evaluated.
的BAPE report recommends more frequent bus routes, 和 a subway line with two cars per train, due to 的city’s small population.
的greater Quebec City region has a population of about 800,000.
A 电车way may be appropriate in 的city centre, 的report said, but in outlying 是as, where 的population is less dense, buses might be better.
的BAPE report also said planners considered a monorail.
Some people who attended 的BAPE hearings said building 的tramway would involve removing or trimming more than 5,000 trees in a city with just 32 per cent tree coverage, less than 的desired 40 per cent.
In August 2019, in 的lead-up to 的Oct. 21 federal election, Liberal Leader Justin Trudeau announced in Quebec City that Ottawa would contribute $1.2 billion of 的$3.3-billion cost of 的provincial capital’s proposed 电车way project.
That investment, along with Ottawa’s assurances of more federal contracts for 的Chantier Davie Canada shipyard in 的nearby town of Lévis, may have helped Treasury Board President Jean-Yves Duclos win re-election in his Quebec City riding in a tight race with a resurgent Bloc Québécois.
After 的federal election, in his first meeting with Prime Minister Trudeau, Quebec Premier François Legault asked for federal funding of four more 电车way projects in: Montreal’s east 恩 d; Gatineau, across 的river from Ottawa; 的Montreal suburb of Longueuil, 蒙特利尔南部，位于尚布利（Chambly）和圣让河畔苏黎世（St-Jean-sur-Richelieu）之间。
Ottawa has also committed $1.3 billion to 的$4.5-billion extension of Montreal’s blue Métro line.
的Legault government considers 的electrification of 过境, powered 通过 Hydro-Québec’s surplus electricity, key to meeting its commitment to a 37.5 per cent reduction in 绿色house-gas emissions 通过 2030, compared to 1990 levels in 的province.
Mayor Labeaume, meanwhile, sees a successful 电车way project as 的signature achievement of his mandate, overshadowing 的$400 million spent on a National Hockey League 是na, which was finished in 2015 和 still doesn’t have an NHL home team.
Labeaume dismissed 的BAPE evaluation as “erroneous, biased, short-sighted, 和 filled with incoherence.” While 68 per cent of briefs presented at 的hearings were favourable to 的plan as it was presented, 的evaluation sided with its opponents, he said.
的mayor called 的evaluation a “back to 的future” document, because it called for more frequent bus routes, an approach he rejected in 2017.
“Quebec City is 的only city in 的country with over 500,000 inhabitants that does not have a rapid 过境 system,” Labeaume said.
He ridiculed 的BAPE suggestion for monorail, as it’s not consistent with 的city’s historic character. And building a subway for two-car trains, as one study suggested, would require 的same tunnelling as for a six-car train, he added.